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Sound perspective

  1. What is sound perspective in film?
  2. What are the different types of microphone pick-up patterns? How do they affect sound perspective? E.g., how would you describe the likely sound perspective of the Mad Men scene below?

Sound and time

  1. The time frame of a narrative scene's sound need not match the time frame of its image.

Diegetic and nondiegetic sound

  1. What is a diegesis?
    • What is diegetic sound? Nondiegetic sound? Examples?

Sound technology

  1. What are the three main types of sound in film and TV production and how do digital audio workstations mirror those three types? (See Ugly Betty ProTools layout for music editor.)
  2. Explain these terms in the context of digital audio: sampling, dynamic range, and frequency response.

Sound-image interaction exercise

What does Television's exercise (using a 1957 Dodge commercial) illustrate?

  1. As a group, choose a well-known song that, if laid over the commercial, would change its meaning. (No R-rated songs, please.) We'll find an excerpt of it online and lay it over the commercial. Be prepared to explain to the class how your song changes the commercial's meaning.

External links


  1. Jeremy G. Butler, Television: Visual Storytelling and Screen Culture (New York: Routledge, 2018).
  2. David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction, (New York: McGraw-Hill).